The liver bears unique immune properties that support both immune tolerance and immunity, but the mechanisms responsible for clearance versus persistence of virus-infected hepatocytes remain unclear. Here, we dissect the factors determining the outcome of antiviral immunity using recombinant adenoviruses that reflect the hepatropism and hepatrophism of hepatitis viruses. We generated replication-deficient adenoviruses with equimolar expression of ovalbumin, luciferase, and green fluorescent protein driven by a strong ubiquitous cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (Ad-CMV-GOL) or by 100-fold weaker, yet hepatocyte-specific, transthyretin (TTR) promoter (Ad-TTR-GOL). Using in vivo bioluminescence to quantitatively and dynamically image luciferase activity, we demonstrated that Ad-TTR-GOL infection always persists, whereas Ad-CMV-GOL infection is always cleared, independent of the number of infected hepatocytes. Failure to clear Ad-TTR-GOL infection involved mechanisms acting during initiation as well as execution of antigen-specific immunity. First, hepatocyte-restricted antigen expression led to delayed and curtailed T-cell expansion-10,000-fold after Ad-CMV-GOL versus 150-fold after Ad-TTR-GOL-infection. Second, CD8 T-cells primed toward antigens selectively expressed by hepatocytes showed high PD-1/Tim-3/LAG-3/CTLA-4/CD160 expression levels similar to that seen in chronic hepatitis B. Third, Ad-TTR-GOL but not Ad-CMV-GOL-infected hepatocytes escaped being killed by effector T-cells while still inducing high PD-1/Tim-3/LAG-3/CTLA-4/CD160 expression, indicating different thresholds of T-cell receptor signaling relevant for triggering effector functions compared with exhaustion.